NCERT CLASS 8 science:- crop production and manag..

    Crop production and management

NCERT CLASS 8 science

Agriculture:-   The applied branch of biology which deals with the cultivation of plants and rearing of animals is called agriculture. Generally, the art or practice of cultivating land  known as agriculture.

  • The branch of agriculture which deals with the feeding, health and management of animals known as animal husbandry.

Agriculture practices:-   All the activities that farmers do for the cultivation of plants are called agricultural practices or method. 

Various Agriculture practice

  1. Preparation of soil
  2. Sowing
  3. Adding manure
  4. Irrigation
  5. Protection from weeds
  6. Harvesting
  7. Storage

Crop:- When plants of the same kind are grown and cultivated at place on a large scale or amount is called as a crop

• crop are also classified on the basis of the seasons as given below:

Kharif crop : The crops which are shown or grown in the rainy season (monsoon) are called kharif crops. 

Example:  Paddy ,maize,and Millet (bajra) etc.

Rabi crop :- the crops which are grown in the winter season are called rabi crops.  

Various agriculture practices

• Preparation of soil :- Before the seeds of the crops are shown, the soil of the fields is loosened and this practice process is overturned, called ploughing or tiling. There is adequate soil ventilation and makes it suitable for the growth of small organisms living in it.

Sowing :- After preparation of soil the second step called sowing takes place. Before sowing good quality of seeds selected. The seeds should be clean and healthy.

Adding manure and fertilisers:-   soil supplies Minerals and nutrients to the crops. These nutrients are essential for growth of plant. Sometimes these nutrients become lacking in the soil . so some substance added to maintain or to replacing the soil. the substance  called manure and fertilizers. manure and fertilizers are essential to increase the crop production. 

Irrigation:- the process of watering the crop plant called irrigation . Plants take all the nutrients and Minerals in dissolved form . so water is most essential for germination of seeds growth and development of plant.

PROTECTION from weeds:-  in a field many other undesirable plant Mein grow naturally along with the crop . This undesirable plant  called weed.

The Removal of weeds called weeding . Weeding is necessary since weed compete with the crop plant for water nutrient space and light affect the growth of crops . some weed interface even in harvesting and may be poisonous for animal and human being.

Harvesting:- after many maturation of Crop it cut off. this process called harvesting. it done by a scale or by a machine called harvester.

Storage:- storage of produce is one of the most important task. to keep the grains for longer time it should be safe from moisture, pest, insects, and other microorganisms.

Agriculture implement:- 

Plough:-  this implement made of wood and iron . it  drawn by a pair of balls or other animals . it contain a strong triangular iron strip call ploughshare . the main part of the plough  a long log of wood which called plough shaft . the plough used for tilling the soil adding fertilizers to crop removing the weeds and scrapping of soil.

NCERT CLASS 8 science |plough|My Academic Era

Hoe:-  Hoe  a simple tool which used to removing weeds and for loossening the soil. it has a long  rood of wood or the iron. strong board and bent plate of iron  fixed to one of its and end work like a blade . it also pulled by animal.

Cultivator:- now a day ploughing done by a tractor driving and cultivator .the use of cultivators save labour and time.

Seeddrill:- it a tool which  used for sowing with the help of tractor . it shows the seed uniformly at proper distance and depth.


It  the process of putting seeds in the soil . For this purpose good quality seeds selected which  clean, healthy, of good variety and give high yield . seeds  sown with the help of traditional funnel shaped tool for a seed drill . an appropriate distance between the cities  also important to avoid overcrowding.

Traditional method of sowing:- the tool used traditionally for sowing seed shaped like a funnel. the seats  filled into the funnel and passed down through two or three pipes having sharp end. These end pierce into the soil and place seeds there.

Modern method of sowing( seed drill):-  now a day the seed drill is used for sowing with the help of tractor . this tool show the seed uniformly at proper distance and depth . it ensure that seed get covered by the soil after showing. this prevent damage caused by Birds. it also safe time and labour . there is sufficient distance between seeds show plants get sufficient sunlight nutrients and water from the soil.

Adding manure and fertilisers :-

The substances that are added to the soil as nutrients for healthy growth of plants are called manures and fertilizers.

Preparation of manure  :- manure or Compost is an organic material obtained from the decomposition of plant or animal waste. Farmers dump the water of plants and animals in open pits and decompose it. Decomposition  caused by some microorganisms. The decomposed material used as organic manure.

• Importance of manure                                                                                     1.The use of manure preserves the soil texture and water efficiency.                                                                                                    2. It replenishes the soil with all the nutrients.

Preparation of fertilisers:-     fertilizers  the chemical substance which rich in particular nutrients . Fertilizers produced in the factories while manure can be made by farmer themselves in the field. some fertilizer are urea ,Ammonium Sulphate ,super sulphate ,Potash, N. P. K(nitrogen, Phosphorus ,potassium ) . Fertilizers  used to get better yield of crop.

Effect of use  of fertilisers:-  Excessive use of fertilizers has made the soil less fertile. They have also become a source of pollution that do not help in maintaining soil fertility for long. The use of fertilizer maintains soil texture and water efficiency.

‏Difference Between Manure and Fertilisers  

. MANURE                                     |         FERTILIZERS

•Manure is prepared in the field  | •The  Fertilizers are prepared in                                                                    factories

•Manure is good for soil              | • fertilisers is harmful for soil

Manure is natural and organic  | •fertilisers are inorganic substance                                               substance


This the agriculture process in which water supplied to crop at different intervals.

Source of Irrigation:-                                                                                The water is available in very lakh and Canal is lifted by different method in different region for taking it to the fields.

Methods of Irrigation:- 

     Traditional methods:-

  1. Maut (Pulley-system) 
  2. Chain pump
  3. Dhekli
  4. Rahat                           

→ Modern method:-                   

  1. Sprinkler system
  2. Drip system

Sprinkler system:-

  • This system more useful on the uneven land where sufficient water not available . The perpendicular pipe having rotating nozzle on . The top joined to the main pipe line at regular interval . When water  allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of Pump, It escape from rotating nozzle. It very useful for sandy soil.

Drip system:- 

In this system the waterfalls drop by drop just at the position of the roots .  so it called drip system. it  the best technique for watering fruit plant Gardens and trees . the system provide water to plant drop by drop . water  not wasted at all. it a boon in regions where availability of water  poor.

Protection from weeds:-

In a field many other undesirable plant May growth naturally along with the crop. These undesirable plant  called weeds. the removal of wheed called weeding. weeding is necessary since weed compete with the crop plant for water ,nutrients ,space ,and light. thus, they affect the growth of Crop. some weed interface even in harvesting and may be poisonous for animal and human being. weeds are controlled by certain chemical called weedicides like 2,4-D.

Harvesting and threshing:-

When crop get mature, they usually turn Yellow or Golden or brown. this  the time when crop should cut. cutting of crop known as harvesting. harvesting  either done manually by a skill or by a machine called harvester . harvested crop  for the dried and then animal such a bull ,Ox buffaloes, camels made to walk over it. the grain separated from chaff with the help of wind winnowing. the whole process of separation The Grain from harvested crop  known as threshing.


Grains obtained by threshinge dried in the open . the dried grain  stored in gunny bags, and place in properly ventilated cemented halls, known as Godown . farmers keep dried grain in jute bag or metallic beans for mud beans .large scale storage of grain  done in silos and granaries for storing large quantities of grain in Big godowns, specific chemical treatment used to protect them from pests and microorganisms.

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